Tag Archives: anatomic structures

Just for Orthopods: Handbook of Fractures

Egol's Handbook of Fractures 4th Edition

The 4th Edition of Handbook of Fractures by Egol, Koval, and Zuckerman, is a must-have for interested medical students and orthopaedics residents everywhere.  It contains the essentials for an orthopaedic rotation and will give you a great foothold on the foundation of the specialty.  Note that it is not an all-knowing book of knowledge, despite being a “go-to guide” for the fundamentals.   It is a very condense text of fractures, dislocations, and stabilization techniques for upper and lower extremities, pediatric cases, axial fractures and dislocations, and also general considerations for the important categories of gunshot, pathologic, and multiple trauma cases, just to name a few.

 

This handbook is divided into 5 major divisions with chapters under each division: I. General Considerations (7 chapters including: GSW, closed reduction/casting/traction, periprosthetic fractures, orthopaedic analgesia), II. Axial Skeleton Fractures (3 chapters including: general spine, cervical spine, thoracolumbar spine), III. Upper Extremity Fractures & Dislocations (14 chapters including: scapula fractures, distal radius fractures, hand fractures), IV. Lower Extremity Fractures & Dislocations (17 chapters including: acetabulum, femoral shaft, patella, calcaneus, talus), and V. Pediatric Fractures & Dislocation (11 chapters including: shoulder, elbow, hip, knee, ankle, and many more).

Egol’s Handbook of Fractures has a lot of text, but is easy to read because important words are bolded and there are quite a good set of illustrations that go along with essential concepts.  Most chapters are subdivided, very logical, touch on epidemiology, anatomy, mechanism of injury, clinical evaluation, radiographic evaluation, classifications of fracture/dislocation, treatment, nonoperative vs operative cases, complications, and rehabilitation.

The primary target audience of the Handbook of Fractures is orthopaedic residents.  It covers a wide range of important and must-know concepts needed to succeed in orthopaedic residency.  The ambitious MS3 who wants to end up on top in an orthopaedic elective clerkship may also find this book enlightening and useful for impressing some attendings and residents (don’t show off too much though, jealousy must be kept at bay!).

This book is certainly not recommended for medical school courses in general, as time spent reading it would be low yield for general surgery rotations. This book is also pretty much useless for the USMLE exams because orthopaedic fractures, dislocations, and other material presented in this book are just not the materials you’ll see on the boards.  If you want to use it to get ready for an elective in orthopaedic clerkship or plan to go into orthopaedic residency, then go right on ahead and invest in one. Otherwise, it is recommended that you skim a library copy as needed.

 

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What You Need to Know about Thieme’s Atlas of Anatomy

Gilroy's Atlas of Anatomy by Thieme

Anatomy – the first huge hurdle for many medical students to climb over. The anatomical knowledge gleaned in this first course will be used repeatedly as part of the foundation of medical knowledge. With that in mind, a solid foundation of resources is an absolute must. Frank Netter’s Atlas of Human Anatomy has been the gold standard of anatomy books for many years. Professors stand by the atlas and will expect you to memorize most, if not all, of those beautifully colored structures in the Netter plates.

That being said, it is important to introduce the Thieme Atlas of Anatomy by Gilroy. Its 2,200 beautiful images have been painstakingly drawn by Markus Voll and Karl Wesker, and appear to jump off the page. The book takes a different approach from other atlases, by starting with deep structures and working its way superficially. This allows for an understanding of the foundation of the body and how the other structures add on to it. At the end of each section, questions are posed to allow the reader to integrate the knowledge they have learned.

Thieme's Winking SkullThe book not only covers gross anatomy, but also illustrates peripheral innervations, arterial supply and venous drainage, lymphatics, etc. The anatomy is bolstered by clinical correlations, and important details are summarized in wonderfully easy-to-understand tables.  The Muscle Fact pages organize the essentials of origin, insertion, innervations in one place, making it much easier to memorize and review. The book also comes with access to WinkingSkull.com PLUS,  Thieme’s online resource and study aid, which gives the user access to over 600 plates with removable labels, and quizzing capabilities.

The largest, and only, detriment to using the Thieme atlas is that most professors still stand by the Netter atlas, and reference page numbers during lectures. To remedy this, Thieme has composed a table which compares Netter plate numbers to Thieme’s, allowing students to find similar plates.

Overall, this is a highly recommended book that many students believe far surpasses Netter in providing  comprehensive and integrative anatomy knowledge to beginning anatomy students and pro’s alike.

 

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Ace Anatomy: Free copy of Moore’s Anatomy and Rohen’s Flashcards!

Free Anatomy Book Giveaway

CLOSED! Congratulations to the winning First Year at Indiana University School of Medicine!

We’re continuing the book giveaways, transitioning from general advice for incoming medical students to focused resources for the premier med school course: Anatomy. This site has previously reviewed a head to head analysis of some of the more popular anatomy atlases out there, and they generally come down to personal taste. As a complement, we’re going to provide some of the other supporting resources needed to ace anatomy.

First and foremost, every student needs a good text, and Moore’s Clinically Oriented Anatomy can provide just that. We will be giving a formal review of the title on this site in the upcoming weeks, but for now rest assured that it is a well established and helpful resource.

Rohen Flash CardsSecondly, students should take advantage of study recall, and for that goal we are also giving away a free set of Rohen’s Flashcards. As a reminder: these are graphic images and should not be used in crowded areas in view of the public.

As extra icing on the cake, Lippincott is throwing in a free 6 month subscription to Acland’s Video Atlas of Human Anatomy Online as well, which is a video series of gross anatomy structures to help students better visualize human anatomy with visual manipulation and pertinent narratives.

Acland Video Atlas of Anatomy

Brand new copies of all three of these titles will be given to one lucky winner randomly selected from the comments of this post. To enter, simply leave any comment, and a valid e-mail address so we can contact you if you should win. As usual, we NEVER use e-mail addresses for anything outside of these contests, as we are medical students too and appreciate privacy. Applicants must be US medical students to win.  See our full contest rules for further details. Contest ends August 20, 2012 at 11:59pm. Good luck!

 

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5 Reasons Why You Shouldn’t Overlook Netter’s Anatomy Flash Cards

Netter's Human Anatomy FlashcardsAt this point in the year, most medical students have already started Gross Anatomy and have gotten a feel for many of the resources available to them.  A review was previously written that compared some of the more popular anatomy atlases, and only a brief mention has been made on this site so far regarding anatomy flash cards. For many students, the idea of atlas flash cards seems redundant.  You should be familiar enough with your study and learning habits to get a feel of this already.  However, there are some benefits to this resource which are best shared by people who have already gone through the full experience of medical school.

1. Size Matters… for Anatomy

Regardless of which atlas you have selected, you are most likely going to be bringing it around with you, or using the local library copy. However, this has its limitations.  Pulling out a copy of Rohen on a crowded bus can not only be disturbing to those around you, but produce a serious issue of professionalism. Similarly, waiting for a bus or standing around somewhere makes balancing a thick anatomy atlas somewhat annoying. The first strength of Netter’s Anatomy Flashcards (now in their third edition) is their size.  Reviewing them is not only easy to manage, but they are also easy to hide.

2. Grab ‘n Go Learning is Key

Chances are, your anatomy class will focus on one particular organ system or anatomic area at a time.  The full Netter’s Anatomy Atlas text is 620 pages, which is overkill for your specific study needs in any given week. While it is a great resource, carrying it around along with a syllabus is going to get tiring pretty fast. A better tactic is simply grabbing the color-coded stack of flash cards dedicated to your current area of interest. The latest version already has hole punches, which keeps organization manageable. At some point in med school, most medical students realize the usefulness of portability. Stack a few cards on top of your snack bars, and you’re set for the day.

3. Instant Access

Netter's Atlas of Human Anatomy smartphone AppPurchasing Netter’s anatomy flash cards new grants access to the studentconsult.com online version of this resource from any computer.  Even if you forgot your cards at home, you can still review them. This basically creates a second copy of the cards, which you can access indefinitely, even if you want to share the hard copy with a friend.  Some will argue that this is especially useful when accessed remotely on a smart phone, but most med students would disagree. The detail of the structures combined with the small font makes for a suboptimal viewing and thus learning experience. This is precisely the reason the iPhone and Android app of any atlas is usually contraindicated.

4. Reusability

While most first year resources are rarely used by med students on the wards, anatomy is something that will need to be reviewed for a number of clerkships, including surgery, ob/gyn, neurology, as well as elective rotations in any surgical subspecialty. Again, a full atlas is always best, but not something easily stored in scrubs pockets and referenced between cases in an operating room.

5. It’s cheaper than you think

A set of anatomy flash cards can usually be purchased new for $25. Because they tend to be in moderate demand every year, they have a resale value that will allow you to recover the majority of its initial cost. Furthermore, selling your set used does not remove access to studentconsult.com, which means you can continue referencing the electronic version.  Even when new versions come out, older sets can usually still be sold.  With that in mind, it is perfectly reasonable to purchase the previous version of these flashcards. Human anatomy hasn’t changed too much since 2006.

As a runner up reason not to overlook Netter’s Anatomy Flashcards: They go particularly well with people in the Rohen camp of anatomy atlases, as it offers a little bit of Netter drawings to complement and enhance the Rohen experience, producing the best of both worlds.

 

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Best Ob/Gyn Review: Blueprints Obstetrics and Gynecology

Best Ob/Gyn Book: Blueprints Obstetrics and Gynecology

Best Og/Byn Review: Blueprints

While this site had previously reported on the vast shortcomings of Blueprints Pediatrics, the writers of Blueprints Obstetrics and Gynecology, now in its fifth edition, have thankfully delivered one of the best ob/gyn review resources for medical students who are not going into obstetrics and gynecology. The book itself follows the same format and design as the others in the series, but don’t judge the book by its cover.

The major strength of Blueprints Ob/Gyn is that it is specifically streamlined for NBME exams, which means it strips down all the unnecessary detail and presents the core topics that will aid you in rocking the shelf, as well as the ob/gyn questions on Step 2.  One of the tough areas of ob/gyn is learning all new normal anatomy and physiology while currently learning the pathophysiology.  The book does a good job of breaking this up into an easy to read flow, with chapters that have a manageable length.  This includes both big-picture overviews (e.g. things that go wrong in third trimester) as well as drill down topics (e.g. preeclampsia). Furthermore, the book also has its own question sets which further solidify the topics as you go. This book also doubles as a great guide on Family Medicine as well.

Specific chapters include Pregnancy and Prenatal Care, Early Pregnancy Complications, Prenatal Screening/Diagnosis/Treatment, Normal Labor and Delivery, Antepartum Hemorrhage, Complications of Labor and Delivery, Fetal Complications, Hypertension in Pregnancy, Diabetes in Pregnancy, Infectious Diseases, Other Medical Complications in Pregnancy, Postpartum Care, Benign Disorders of the Genital Tract, Endometriosis and Adenomyosis, Pelvic Relaxation, Urinary Incontinence, Puberty and Menopause, Amenorrhea, Hirsutism and Virilism, Contraception and Sterilization, Elective Pregnancy Termination, Infertility and Assisted Reproduction, various Cancers, and Breast Disease.

Keep in mind that this latest fifth edition has very few changes compared to the previous two versions.  If you can pick up the older copies for cheap or free, they will provide the same knowledge.

 

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Sites to See: The Eyes Have It

University of Michigan Kellogg Eye Center: The Eyes Have It
As a complement to the latest post on ophthalmoscopes, we are happy to share an excellent online resource for medical students to learn about ocular findings and signs that may pop up on physical exam: The Eyes Have It, from the University of Michigan’s Kellogg Eye Center.

The Eyes Have It is a site that provides a split instructional and quiz portion to both review and solidify ophthalmology knowledge. The information is straight forward, and creates a great overview for med students in the primary care settings, and a starting point for ophthalmology clerkships.

Papilledema and Retinal Artery Occlusion

For the first-year medical students, after you purchase your ophthalmoscope for the first time, take a good hard look in as many eyes as you can.  When something looks weird, this is the site to go to as your first step.  For the third year medical students, here’s a pimp tip that will make you look like a rock star: involvement of herpes zoster on the nose is known as Hutchinson sign, and is a good clue that the eye is involves in the outbreak as well.  Bonus points are given to anyone who can comment on the pathology of the above two images from The Eyes Have It.

Iris Collage

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Epic Anatomy Atlas Battle: Netter vs Rohen! (and others)

Anatomy Atlas Showdown: Netter vs Rohen
The age old debate once again emerges. This post will attempt to sort out the confusion to help you make the best decision on your first year med school anatomy atlas purchase. While the main issue is almost always Netter or Rohen, there are actually a few other contenders that will be briefly discussed as well.

First, it is important to specify that there are both better books, and different books.  What that means is that Netter’s Atlas of Human Anatomy (reviewed in full here) is going to be a better learning tool than most of its low budget imitators. However there are also apples-and-oranges comparisons, which is where Rohen’s Color Atlas of Anatomy (reviewed in full here) comes into play.

So which to choose? Rohen or Netter? The difference lies in how you like to study.  Rohen’s Color Atlas of Anatomy is going to excel at providing actual cadaver pictures, so what you study in the book is exactly what you will be tested on in your anatomy practical exams. Rohens’ also has the benefit of only numbering structures that require a legend, so it is perfect for quizzing – simply cover the answer sheet.  However, anatomy is hard for a number of reasons, one such difficulty being that multiple flesh colored structures easily blend together. As a solution, Frank Netter produced his famous Atlas of Human Anatomy, which covers all the same anatomy as Rohen, but with drawings.  His illustrations have the benefit of being able to clearly show the borders of structures with differences in coloring, making the anatomy easier to understand (whereas Rohen paints a small minority of structures to a less effective degree).  Tiny anatomy like nerves or vasculature pop off the page with contrast from their backgrounds with Netter. The down side is that Netter’s Atlas of Human Anatomy isn’t completely representative of anatomy practicals, as exams are not so conveniently color coded.

Head to head comparison: Rohen vs Netter Anatomy Atlas books

Head to head comparison: Rohen vs Netter Anatomy Atlases

This ultimately comes down to a decision of clarity or authenticity. In the end, the debate will always be split based on this and how each individual person studies.  It is recommended that you use both, depending on the situation, to get the best of both worlds. Specifically, Netter’s is a great first-pass reference book to help identify structures when initially exposed to the material, whereas Rohen’s is going to solidify existing understanding based on the actual visuals. In other words, a good strategy is to use Netter’s first, then go to Rohen’s.  As owning both books can get costly, try to own the one that appeals most to you, and borrow the other from an opposite-minded friend or the library.

Rohen’s and Netter’s Anatomy Atlases are not the only Anatomy books out there, though they are generally better than most.  Some other options deserve honorable mention.

The Sobatta Atlas of Human Anatomy (volume 1 and volume 2) is a hidden gem that breaks up the entire body into tremendous detail across two volumes.  Many believe the quality of the illustrations themselves actually surpass Netter’s.  It is important to note that this book distinguishes itself from the others by identifying all of the anatomical structures by their latin names. For a surprising majority of structures, this naming system is perfectly fine, as a good amount of anatomy is already latin. If you can use this book effectively, you will come out with a deeper understanding of the anatomy, its function, and its naming system.  For example, ab muscles are called Rectus Abdominis because “rectus” comes from the latin for “straight.”  Keep in mind that these will increase understanding, but at the time-cost of mastering part of a different language. Own both volumes if you can afford them, but otherwise it is worth going out of your way to find them in your school’s medical library.

Grant’s Atlas of Anatomy is another illustrated book. Unlike Netter, Rohen, and Sobatta, there’s just nothing really special to speak of. It highlights the anatomy and will help your studies, but generally doesn’t bring anything more to the table compared to the above books. Grant’s Dissector, (not to be confused with the Atlas) works particularly well for anatomy lab, but should not be purchased if your med school requires a different book. If they do require Grant’s Dissector, or you purchase it because they don’t require any book at all, you’re in good hands.

Gray's Anatomy AtlasLastly, honorable mention must be given to the epic original (but currently outdated) Gray’s Anatomy, originally named Gray’s Anatomy Descriptive and Surgical. No, it was not named after the TV show. Since the original, a number of revisions and companion books have been produced by new editors under the same name, including Gray’s Atlas of Anatomy, Gray’s Anatomy Review, Gray’s Anatomy for Students, and Gray’s Anatomy: The Anatomical Basis of Clinical Practice (seen right). See that sticker on the front cover that says “150 years?”  That’s there because the original author, Henry Gray, was born in 1827.  While anatomy hasn’t changed much since then, our understanding and technology has improved slightly past the mostly black-and-white images from the original Gray’s Anatomy, which can be found for free at Bartleby’s Online Gray’s Anatomy of the Human Body.  As you go through med school and use Dr. Wikipedia, you’ll see many of the original images from Gray’s Anatomy used as a reference (example below). The above book and many of its similarly name renditions contain up to date text and illustrations, but they are generally anatomy textbooks and not dedicated atlases like the abovementioned publications, to be reviewed at a later time.  Gray’s Anatomy is mentioned here for historic reference as the influential publication that really pioneered the way of the illustrated Anatomy Atlas.
Gray's Anatomy Atlas Heart

 

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Rohen’s Color Atlas of Anatomy: A Photographic Study of the Human Body

Rohen's Color Atlas of Anatomy: A Photographic Study of the Human Body

Rohen's Color Atlas of Anatomy: A Photographic Study of the Human Body

Rohen’s Color Atlas of Anatomy: A Photographic Study of the Human Body, more lovingly referred to simply as “Rohen’s” has a deceptive cover.  The anatomy picture on the front looks cartoonish, and the “color atlas” in the name sounds like it’s a coloring book. Do not overlook this med school anatomy book, as it is a big push to increasing your chance of getting Honors on your first med school class.

It is another anatomy atlas, yes, but instead of using drawings like Netter’s Atlas of Human Anatomy, it excels by using actual cadaver photographs to directly show the anatomy. What this means is that the images in Rohen’s Color Atlas of Anatomy closely approximate what will be seen on every one of your anatomy practical exams in full color, but without the smell of having to actually go into anatomy lab.  Later in third year, in comes in handy on surgery to identify key anatomic landmarks and surgical planes of dissection.

One of the other benefits of this atlas is that it labels structures with numbers which are referenced on another part of the page.  This legend can be covered, turning the Anatomy Atlas into an instant study guide for quizzing oneself on anatomic structures. It also comes with access to the online text, which makes it portable and viewable on many smart phones.

Some med students make the mistake of trying to bring this book into anatomy lab.  As with any other resource, the lab is not the place for Rohen’s Color Atlas of Anatomy unless you want to ruin your book.  Everyone at medstudentbooks has the utmost respect for cadaver donors, but this warning must be expressed: liquefied adipose and fixatives get over everything brought into the lab.  You do not want to bring that home on your books and have it touching anything else.  Use older free copies in the lab, even though they are mildly outdated, or hope your anatomy laboratory partners haven’t found this site or don’t care if their books are ruined.

The book hits on all of the expected anatomy, being everything.  The order of its units is as follows: General Anatomy Principles, Skull and Muscles of the Head, Cranial Nerves, Brain and Sensory Organs, Oral and Nasal Cavities, Neck and its Organs, Trunk, Thoracic Organs, Abdominal Organs, Retroperitoneal Organs, Upper Limb, and Lower Limb Anatomy.

As with any real cadaver pictures, care must be taken where the book is opened. While this is a superior resource for studying anatomy, it should not be opened in public areas such as buses or parks out of respect for those around you.  As young medical professionals, it is easy to overlook the sensitivity of this issue. However, we are charged with maintaining professional behavior, which includes restricting the sights found in this book to other medical professionals.

If you’re the type of person who needs to visualize real images to crystallize the learning, Rohen’s Atlas of Anatomy is the book for you.

 

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